Peumansend Creek supposedly memorializes where a privateer/pirate named Peuman was killed
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online
Pirates are often romanticized as resourceful entrepreneurs on the fringes of the wilderness, taking daring risks while creating egalitarian communities on ships that honored a code of behavior. More accurately, pirates were thieves who stole from ships, seized entire ships, and raided plantations on land. Pirates were (and are) highway robbers operating on water.
Far inland in Caroline County, Peumansend Creek is reportedly named after a French privateer or pirate. Sometime before 1670, according to local lore, Captain Peuman raided up the Rappahannock River one too many times. Local colonists blocked his escape back to the Chesapeake Bay, and he ended up trapped in a creek near the town of Port Royal. Peuman was killed there, and today the place where he "met his end" is called Peumansend Creek.1
Pirate ships were the equivalent of modern get-away cars of bank robbers. Nonetheless, at times the English government authorized ships to be "official" pirates called privateers, to attack Spanish, French, and Dutch ships and colonies. Interrupting the merchant trade of a rival weakened its ability to generate revenue and pay for troops and supplies, and created internal pressure from a country's business elites to conclude a war.
Other nations authorized their own privateers to attack the English in a form of undeclared-but-official economic warfare. In the 1600's and 1700's, certain ship captains were authorized by different European monarchs through a document called a letter of marque to use private ships to seize merchant vessels of enemy nations. As Spanish colonies in Central and South America sought independence in the 1800's, groups claiming to be governments issued letters of marque which justified capturing Spanish merchant vessels in the Gulf of Mexico. The documents provided a thin veneer of legitimacy to pirates based in Louisiana, including Jean and Pierre Lafitte.
Captured ships were known as "prizes." Privateers could sail them back to an American port, where a judge would oversee an auction of the ship and its cargo and distribute the revenue to captains and crew.
Sailors could engage in a shifting cycle of illegitimate piracy, intermixed with legitimate privateering (legal piracy) and private operations:2
Kings and queens "outsourced" to expand their navies by authorizing privateers, avoiding the political headaches of raising taxes to build more warships and find crews to staff the vessels. During the American Revolution, the Continental Congress did the same. The official letter of marque endorsement meant that privateers were enemy combatants, and should be protected as prisoners of war if captured rather than executed summarily as pirates.
Ship captains and crews with letters of marque could go rogue and seize merchant vessels without any official blessing; in colonial times, ships sailing to and from Virginia suffered from unauthorized piracy as well as privateering authorized by hostile nations. When nations were at peace and letters of marque were scarce, captains and crews could switch to whatever unofficial opportunities were available.
in 1780, the Continental Congress issued letters of marque that authorized privateers to attack English shipping
Source: Library of Congress, Instructions to the captains and commanders of private armed vessels which shall have commissions or letters of marque and reprisal
The "rules of the games" were flexible. Determination of what was legal varied, depending upon who was making the decisions. Experienced captains and crews switched back and forth between privateer and pirate, or simply signed up for ordinary commercial trips, depending upon the demand for their services. Before coming to Virginia in 1607, even John Smith had served on a pirate ship in the Mediterranean.3
For example, the transition of the colony of Virginia from royal to Parliamentary control between 1651-1652 created confusion regarding which laws applied in the colony. After Parliament passed the first Navigation Act of 1651, Dutch ships were banned from trading with the colony of Virginia. Virginia trips were banned from sailing to destinations other than England and its various possessions.
One Jamestown merchant was caught up in the change in policy, sailing The Fame of Virginia to the Netherlands when Virginia was loyal to the king but returning in 1752 after Parliament had seized control of the Virginia colony.
Upon the ship's return to Virginia, another sea captain seized The Fame of Virginia and claimed it as a prize, based upon the ship's violation of Parliamentary law. The Northampton County Court rejected that claim. When the captain who seized the ship left the court after losing his case, he promptly sailed away with his "prize."
County taxpayers feared they would be required to provide compensation, since county officials had made the mistake of releasing the captain who sailed away, but then a Dutch ship was captured. Colonial officials conspired together to claim that ship as property of the colony, then sell it at a great discount to the owner of The Fame of Virginia (with the arbiters making the decision getting compensated by that owner, as part of the deal). Clearly, the boundary between illegal piracy and legalized privateering depended upon the circumstances, and who got rewarded by different interpretations of the law.4
Dutch privateers, not pirates, caused the greatest damage to Virginia shipping in the Chesapeake Bay area. In 1667, during one of the Anglo-Dutch wars, Dutch privateers disguised themselves as English ships. They sailed into the Chesapeake Bay, crippled the one English warship stationed there, and captured the fleet of merchant ships preparing to sail to England with full loads of tobacco.
The privateers had time to send landing parties to loot plantation houses along the James River. Before the militia under Gov. William Berkeley could organize a response, the Dutch sailed away with all the tobacco ships they could handle and burned the rest of the fleet.
In 1673, another set of Dutch raiders repeated their success. They spent days collecting tobacco from Virginia and Maryland merchant vessels, overcoming efforts of ship captains to flee up the Nansemond and James rivers.5
Thanks to intimidation, robbery at sea was often a pretty easy way to make a living. Pirates consciously spread fear regarding their behavior, and announcing their presence by hoisting a blood-red flag. Blackbeard hoisted a black flag with a death's head, while variants used by other pirates are replicated today as the "Jolly Roger" flag with a skull and crossbones.6
Captains and crews who quickly surrendered hoped to be treated better than those who fought back or tried to escape. Crew members from captured vessels ("prizes") would be invited to join the pirates, who at times created a fleet with multiple ships that required additional crew.
Those who refused were imprisoned with passengers in dark and smelly holds below decks or marooned on a plundered hulk from which sails and ropes had been removed. A quick surrender might result in gentle treatment, but pirates were mercurial and often undisciplined. Captains, crews, and passengers could be tortured or killed for information/entertainment, and the fate of captured ships varied
some pirates flew red flags to signal no quarter, while others flew black flags that intimidated captains/crew of merchant ships
Source: Library of Congress, Major Stede Bonnet.
Sometimes pirates simply stole valuables, and then released the crew and ship. At other times, pirates would trade their worn-out vessels for a captured merchant ship in better condition, in the maritime equivalent of stealing a faster car.
Ships not suitable for use by the pirates were often burned, or ship carpenters were forced to drill holes below the waterline so the wooden vessels would quickly sink. Putting captives on board, and sinking unneeded ships, enabled pirates to keep their location secret from any English warships patrolling the American coastline and from private vessels chartered by colonial governors to hunt down pirates.
Some pirate crews made decisions by democratic vote. Strong-willed captains made decisions for other crews, and mutinies were not uncommon when the decision process broke down. William Dampier, a pirate who lived for a part of his life in Virginia, captained one of several pirate ships sailing in the Pacific Ocean near Chile in 1704 when another pirate captain marooned a troublesome sailor on an isolated island there.
Four years later, Dampier was navigator on the ship that rescued the castaway, Alexander Selkirk. Dampier's descriptions of his experiences helped stimulate Jonathan Swift to write Gulliver's Travels and Daniel Defoe to write Robinson Crusoe.7
Like modern burglars, pirates sought cash and goods easy to sell. They stole the personal possessions of captured crew and passengers, and resupplied their ships with rigging, food, and whatever wine, beer, and rum they captured.
Pirates might sail a captured ship to a port where officials winked at their presence, and sell the cargo to the equivalent of modern "fences" trafficking in stolen goods. Hogsheads of tobacco or other bulk cargo on captured ships would be thrown overboard if the ship itself was desired. Other ships with hard-to-sell cargoes were simply sunk or burned, after the easy-to-sell items were transferred to the pirate's ship.
Ten years after the successful 1673 Dutch raid in the Chesapeake Bay, the English began to station a Royal Navy guardship at the Virginia colony to protect the commercial shipping from privateers with letters of marque and from pirates. In 1688, the HMS Dumbarton seized four men who were suspected of being pirates. They were in a small boat on the Chesapeake Bay, and were thought to be pirates because the boat carried three chests loaded with gold coins and items of silver.
It turned out one of the four was Edward Davis, who had sailed out of Hampton in 1683 with William Dampier on a pirate expedition (though they also obtained letters of marque from the king of England). Davis ended up as captain of the Batchelor's Delight, which raided Spanish shipping and coastal villages on the west coast of South America until King James II issued a proclamation of amnesty for pirates in 1687. Davis obtained a royal pardon for the crew in Jamaica, but the pirates calculated that it would be wise to split up and seek to disguise their past.
The captain of the HMS Dumbarton and the colonial officials at Jamestown were not willing to accept the pardon granted by the royal governor in Jamaica. They hoped to claim a share of the treasure seized from the four men, and the officials also feared retaliation from other pirates if the four men were punished.
Ultimately, one of the four died and the other three were shipped to England for trial. Rev. James Blair, the commissary representing the Anglican church in Virginia, was visiting London in hopes of finding a source of money to start a college in Williamsburg. He helped the pirates negotiate a plea bargain.
The English judge agreed in 1692 to release the defendants and restore their confiscated treasure, if they made a substantial contribution to the colony where they had first been arrested. The three former pirates donated the equivalent of $1 million today, and it was used to start the College of William and Mary.8
in 1688, James II granted amnesty to pirates who returned to England
Source: Library of Congress, British Attempt to Suppress Pirates
The HMS Dumbarton was lucky to capture four trying-to-retire-in-peace pirates, crossing the Chesapeake Bay in an unarmed small boat. At times, the Royal Navy guardship was outgunned by the pirates. In 1699, the 16-gun Essex Prize warship was forced to evade and then finally flee from the pirate John James and his 26-gun Providence Galley, which then plundered various merchant ships in Lynnhaven Bay and the Chesapeake Bay.
The colonists in Virginia were not anxious to have an effective Royal Navy in the Chesapeake Bay, capable of intercepting all ships and ensuring all duties were collected. As described in The Virginian-Pilot's series of articles in 2006 exploring the history of pirates in Virginia:9
Lynnhaven Bay, where pirate Lewis Guittar captured merchant ships in 1700 - but then was captured by the new guardship
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online
Occasionally, the guard ship was capable of defeating even well-armed pirates. In 1700, the pirate Lewis Guittar captured a fast merchant vessel, the La Paix (Peace) in Barbados, converted it into his pirate flagship, then seized other ships to assemble a pirate fleet. That pirate fleet captured multiple vessels off the Virginia coastline, but Lewis Guittar's success ended after he sailed into Lynnhaven Bay in April, 1700.
He thought the only British warship in the Chesapeake Bay region was the dilapidated Essex Prize. Some of the merchant vessels that were anchored in Lynnhaven Bay tried to escape, fleeing to the Atlantic Ocean and hoping they could sail faster than the pirates, but one ship slipped up the James River to alert the colonial authorities. The powerful warship Shoreham had arrived recently to strengthen the colony's defenses, and it quickly sailed (with Governor Nicholson on board) to challenge the La Paix.
After a battle in Lynnhaven Bay, the sails and rudder of the La Paix were shot away and the pirate flagship disabled. Guittar threatened to blow it up, killing 50 or so prisoners that he had seized from other vessels, rather than surrender unconditionally. To save the lives of the hostages, Gov. Nicholson agreed to grant quarter to the pirates, assuring them of a trial in England. One pirate (John Houghling) jumped off the La Paix and swam to shore in hopes of escaping. After the first trial for piracy in Virginia, Houghling was found guilty and hung, together with two other pirates who had been found asleep on one of their prizes and were therefore excluded from the governor's clemency.10
The presence of the 28-gun Shoreham had surprised Lewis Guittar, and reflected a change in colonial policy to increase protection of merchant vessels sailing between England and the Chesapeake Bay. The British Navy previously sent just poorly-equipped, poorly-staffed vessels to serve as guard ships in the Chesapeake Bay, in part because colonists had been reluctant to increase official patrols in the Chesapeake Bay.
Raids on French and Spanish vessels were no longer legitimized by English letters of marque after the end of Queen Anne's War in 1713, but English pirates based in the Bahamas continued to seize foreign merchant ships. In 1718, after a new royal governor expelled pirates from the Bahamas, Virginia became a prime target:11
The most famous pirate associated with Virginia today is Blackbeard, one of the last pirates to pose a serious threat to Virginia's shipping. Blackbeard (Edward Teach) was a licensed privateer during Queen Anne's War and an unlicensed pirate afterward. The details of his life are hazy, but he may have been born in Jamaica, become a crewman on a merchant ship, and then joined the Royal Navy as a youth.
After the destruction of a Spanish treasure fleet during a 1715 hurricane, many Jamaicans began looting the wrecks off the Florida coast. Teach and other English privateers liked free treasure, and kept seizing merchant vessels from Spain and France - even though the Treaty of Utrecht had been signed in 1713 to end the War of the Spanish Succession.
Blackbeard reportedly presented a fearsome appearance that was a calculated part of his business style, not a coincidental characteristic. He may not have killed anyone, himself, until his last battle. His goal was to frighten victims into surrendering without a fight:12
Blackbeard the Pirate
Source: A general history of the pyrates (1724)
In 1718, Blackbeard organized a blockade of the main South Carolina port, Charles Town (Charleston). He managed to get a pardon from North Carolina Governor Charles Eden. The governor of Virginia, Alexander Spotswood, was less forgiving.
Technically, Spotswood had no jurisdiction over piracy committed in the Atlantic Ocean south of the Virginia border, but pirates based on the Outer Banks of North Carolina threatened ships sailing in and out of the Chesapeake Bay. North Carolina ship captains requested help from Virginia, recognizing that Governor Charles Eden was allied with Teach and unwilling to stop his piracy.
King George I had issued pardons to pirates in 1717 and again in 1718, hoping they would voluntarily switch back to legal shipping activities. Spotswood was looking for an opportunity to improve his relationship with the powerful gentry in Virginia, who were resisting his authority as governor. A strong stand against piracy would enhance colonial commerce in Virginia, increasing profits of plantation owners and thus increasing Spotswood's political power in Williamsburg.
Governor Spotswood did not wait for Blackbeard to hear about the second pardon opportunity. He dispatched Lieutenant Robert Maynard from the Chesapeake Bay to Ocracoke Island, after learning that Blackbeard's ship Adventure had become stuck on a shoal there.
Maynard took two ships, Jane and Ranger. He found Blackbeard's ship on November 22, 1718 and demanded that he surrender, but the pirates chose to attack him.
Maynard tricked Blackbeard by having his crew on the Jane go below decks. The 10 pirates boarded Maynard's ship, thinking most of the crew had been killed. Maynard and his 11 crew members came back on deck, and in hand-to-hand combat with swords and pistols they killed or captured all the pirates. Blackbeard's head was cut off and hung from the bowsprit on Maynard's ship. That displayed the success of the mission on its return to Virginia, and the severed head was then hung on a pole in Hampton.13
Blackbeard's severed head was carried back to Virginia
Source: The Pirates Own Book (p.217)
Today, marine archeologists have excavated the Queen Anne's Revenge, which sank on the Outer Banks near Beaufort Inlet six months before Lieutenant Robert Maynard defeated Blackbeard and his pirate crew on the Adventure. It was loaded with weapons. At least 30 cannon have been found so far, along with cutlasses and firearms. Archeologists even found grenades designed to be tossed by hand onto the deck or in the hold of a ship, plus the equivalent of a Molotov cocktail designed to set fire to a ships sails and rigging.14
The pirate history has been romanticized. The City of Hampton holds an annual festival commemorating his exploits and his ship the Queen Anne's Revenge, converting a once-feared military threat into an excuse for a party. The festival started in 2000 as a Hampton event, to pull some tourists across the water during OpSail 2000 in Norfolk. The continued public response (with 50,000 visitors annually) surprised tourism officials, but they have scheduled events each year.
Hampton's connection to Blackbeard provides something unique to draw tourists to the city. As the Convention & Visitors Bureau Executive Director has noted:15
Placing the bodies of executed pirates in public locations was thought to deter others from choosing to become pirates. Spotswood had bodies hung in chains at the harbors of Tyndall's Point (York River) and Urbanna (Rappahannock River). The return of Maynard's trophy to Hampton, a gruesome event in 1718, is now a high point of the city's annual Blackbeard Festival:16
Blackbeard's Point, where Lieutenant Robert Maynard hung the pirate's head, is at the southern end of Eaton Street in Hampton
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online
Blackbeard was not the very last pirate in Virginia. In 1720, pirates captured a Virginia vessel near Barbados, and eight of the pirates sought to return to "civilian life" by sailing home with that vessel to the Chesapeake. The pirates were captured and six were executed, but that triggered a threat from other pirates to get revenge on Virginia. Governor Spotswood established lookout posts at Cape Charles and Cape Henry, plus fortifications at the mouths of the James, York, and Rappahannock rivers. Those defenses were not tested, but fear of being captured and tortured by pirates while sailing back to England kept Spotswood in Virginia even after he was replaced as governor.17
Pirate treasure may be buried today somewhere on Virginia's coastline. Captain Kidd sailed from the Caribbean to Boston in 1699, supposedly burying gold, silver, and jewels on the shoreline during the journey. Perhaps his loot was recovered by other pirates soon after he was captured (and later executed in England), or perhaps whatever treasure he buried may be exposed one day after a storm shifts the sands.
A July 1819 piracy trial in Richmond, United States v. Smith, is still relevant in defining the US approach to international law. The crew of the Creola mutinied, seized a faster ship named the Irresistible and started capturing ships. Though cargo was stolen and passengers/crews robbed, no one was murdered.
The Irresistible sailed to Baltimore, home of some crew members. Officials there arrested them. Two were tried and executed in Baltimore. Another 17 were tried in Richmond. One was acquitted and 16 were convicted of piracy, but the judges disagreed on whether the crews actions met the definition of "piracy" under the US Congress' 1819 Act to Protect the Commerce of the United States and Punish the Crime of Piracy.
The law described "the crime of piracy, as defined by the law of nations." Chief Justice John Marshall heard the case in Richmond, operating as a judge of the circuit court there. Sixteen prisoners were convicted, but Marshall and the other judge disagreed on whether the actions of the crew qualified as "piracy." Marshall noted:18
The case was elevated to the US Supreme Court for final resolution. It ruled that the US Congress was entitled to reference international law when defining the crime, and that the crew was guilty of piracy. All 16 were sentenced to death, but President Monroe reduced the sentences and none were executed.
The US Congress has not updated the 1819 law since the Supreme Court found it sufficient, but Federal judges still interpret it differently. In 2010, different Federal judges in the Eastern District of Virginia disagreed on whether two failed attempts to seize a US Navy vessel off the coast of Somalia qualified as piracy. One judge ruled that actual robbery had to occur before the 1819 law could be applied. The appeal resulted in a ruling that a violent attack, even if repulsed before robbery occurred, qualified as an act of piracy as understood under international law.19
In 1827, three pirates were captured in Virginia, then tried and executed. They had helped to seize a vessel sailing from Cuba, planning to use it as a slave ship to smuggle human cargo from Africa to the United States. The pirates sailed to Norfolk to resupply before crossing the Atlantic Ocean. At Old Point Comfort, the pirates sent the ship's mate ashore to purchase supplies, but he immediately alerted the officers at Fortress Monroe. The head of the pirates killed himself, but three others fled in a boat to Hampton. They walked to Newport News, used a canoe to cross to the south bank of the James River, and got 20 miles inland before being captured.
Chief Justice Marshall opened a special session of the Circuit Court in Richmond for trial of the three men. The trial was conducted on on July 16, 1827. The accused pirates were Spaniards from Cuba, so an interpreter was used to translate proceedings for them and to communicate their testimony.
The defendants claimed they had been asleep when the captain of the brig Crawford, most of the crew, and some passengers were murdered and tossed overboard near the Bahamas before the ship sailed to Norfolk. The jury returned three guilty verdicts after just five minutes of deliberation for each defendant, and they were executed within three weeks.20
in 1827, three pirates were tried, convicted, and executed in Richmond
Source: Library of Congress, A Treasure Trove of Trials
In 1856, as part of the negotiations at the end of the Crimean War, European nations signed the Declaration Respecting Maritime Law. It abolished privateering and the use of letters of marque. Private ships may still be converted to military use, but a government must accept responsibility for the actions of such vessels.21
Confederates engaged in acts of piracy in 1861. The governor of Virginia sanctioned their plan to capture the USS Pawnee, then use it as a Confederate warship and disrupt Union shipping on the Chesapeake Bay.
The USS Pawnee commanded the three-ship Potomac Squadron that patrolled the Potomac River and interrupted smuggling between Maryland and Virginia. The Confederates planned to seize a packet boat, the St. Nicholas, which traveled regularly between Baltimore and the Patuxent River. That boat, pretending to still be under Union control, would be able to get next to the USS Pawnee.
The Confederate conspirators boarded the St. Nicholas as regular passengers. The commander was Richard Thomas, who adopted the last name of Zarvona. He got onboard disguised as a French lady, and inside her baggage trunks were weapons used to seize the boat. The St. Nicholas then stopped at the mouth of the Coan River in Northumberland County to unload passengers and crew, and to load 30 infantrymen sent by Governor John Letcher.
All three US Navy warships had returned to Washington, DC, so the Confederates had to settle for using the St. Nicholas to disrupt shipping in the Chesapeake Bay. There they captured ships loaded with coffee and ice, plus a coaling schooner which enabled a refueling while anchored in the Rappahannock River. The three captured ships and the St. Nicholas ended the pirate expedition by going to Fredericksburg. The 38 crew members of the four captured ships were taken by train to Richmond, then brought back to the Coan River and repatriated by a Confederate vessel to Point Lookout in Maryland.
After a legal proceeding in the Richmond District Court in Admiralty to determine the fair value of the St. Nicholas, the Confederate Government purchased the ship and delivered the funds to the owners in Baltimore. The ship was renamed the CSS Rappahannock, and burned to prevent recapture when the Confederates evacuated Fredericksburg in April 1862.
The Confederates tried to capture a second steamer, but ended up being caught. The Union Army did not give in to public demands to hang Richard Thomas Zarvona as a pirate, but also declined to consider him as a prisoner of war. His health deteriorated while imprisoned, and he was returned to Virginia as part of a prisoner exchange in 1863.22
a Richmond newspaper celebrated Confederate piracy in 1861, while a District of Columbia paper had a different angle
Source: Library of Congress - Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers, The Daily Dispatch and Evening Star (July 2, 1861)
More recently, the wave of piracy in the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia triggered trials in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. The first conviction in nearly 200 years was in 2010, for attacks on the USS Nicholas. By 2011, 26 pirates had been brought over 7,000 miles to Virginia for trial.
The largest group of pirates to be tried were captured in 2011, after Somali pirates with AK-47s and rocket-propelled grenades hijacked a 58-foot sailboat off the east coast of Africa. The American guided missile destroyer Sterett intercepted the seized Quest, but negotiations failed. The pirates executed the four American hostages on the sailboat. US Navy Seals swarmed onto the boat, killing four pirates and capturing 14 others.
Most pirates captured off the coast of East Africa recently have been tried in the courts of Somalia, Kenya, and the Seychelles. Because Americans were murdered on the sailboat, the US Navy brought the 14 captured pirates back to Norfolk for trial, where 11 pled guilty and were given life sentences. FBI and Somali security forces also captured the multi-lingual onshore negotiator, and after trial he was also given a life sentence.
The three pirates accused of shooting the Americans on the sailboat were tried in 2013 and faced the death penalty, but a Federal jury ended up giving them life sentences as well. One juror was apparently not convinced that the three men on trial were the ones who fired the guns and killed the four American hostages.23
When the Maersk Alabama was seized in 2009, the captain was held captive in a small lifeboat until Navy sharpshooters killed the pirates with him. The movie Captain Phillips, starring Tom Hanks, dramatized that event. Other pirates on the Maersk Alabama were captured and brought to New York for trial.
The pirates who had seized the Quest tried unsuccessfully to get their trial moved out of Norfolk. They contended:24
the life of pirates and privateers has been romanticized and converted into tourist events and "Talk Like a Pirate Day" - aaargh!
Source: Library of Congress, A Pirate's Life For Me
graphic from poster for 2013 Blackbeard Festival in Hampton
Source: City of Hampton, About the Festival
1. Marshall Wingfield, A History of Caroline County, Virginia: From Its Formation in 1727 to 1924, Genealogical Publishing Company, 1924, p.36, http://books.google.com/books?id=xxVhymOH3usC (last checked September 8, 2013)
2. Joel H. Samuels, "The Full Story of United States v. Smith, America錕絪 Most Important Piracy Case," Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs, Volume 1, Issue 2 (November 2012), pp.323-325, https://elibrary.law.psu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=jlia (last checked June 3, 2018)
3. Meredith Hindley, "Soldier of Fortune: John Smith before Jamestown," Humanities, Volume 28, Number 1 (January/February 2007), http://www.neh.gov/humanities/2007/januaryfebruary/feature/soldier-fortune-john-smith-jamestown (last checked August 18, 2013)
4. Jon Kukla, Political Institutions in Virginia, 1619-1660, Garland Publishing, New York, 1989, pp.170-176
5. "Pirates series: Dutch raiders prowl Hampton Roads," Daily Press (Newport News), May 27, 2012, http://www.dailypress.com/features/history/dp-nws-pirates-2-20120527,0,428923.story (last checked August 18, 2013) 6. Arthur L. Cooke, "British Newspaper Accounts of Blackbeard's Death," The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Volume 61, Number 3 (July 1953), http://www.jstor.org/stable/4245947; Peter T. Leesony, "Pirational Choice: The Economics of Infamous Pirate Practices," Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Volume 76, Issue 3 (December 2010), p.10, Daily Mail, December 16, 2011, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2074868/Rare-red-Jolly-Roger-pirate-flag-captured-battle-north-Africa-230-years-ago-goes-display-time.html (last checked September 11, 2013)
7. Mark P. Donnell, Daniel Diehl, Pirates of Virginia, Stackpole Books, 2012, pp.28-29; Bruce Selcraig, "The Real Robinson Crusoe," Smithsonian, July 2005, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/scottishhistory/europe/oddities_europe.shtml (last checked May 16, 2014)
8. Mark Donnelly, Daniel Diehl, Pirates of Virginia: Plunder and High Adventure on the Old Dominion Coastline, Stackpole Books, 2012, pp.33-42; "The Unreliable Legend of the Batchelor's Delight: Buccaneers Davis, Wafer & Hingson, and the Ship Batchelors Delight," William and Mary Alumni Magazine, Volume 75 Number 4 (Summer 2010), cached at Daily Press, May 29, 2012, http://www.dailypress.com/features/history/dp-nws-pirates-3-20120529-story.html (last checked June 15, 2018)
9. Thomas C. Parramore, Peter C. Stewart, Tommy L. Bogger, Norfolk: the First Four Centuries, University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1994, p.55; Mark P. Donnell, Daniel Diehl, Pirates of Virginia, Stackpole Books, 2012, pp.59-65; "Out of the Sea! Chapter 1," The Virginian-Pilot, August 13, 2006, The Virginian-Pilot, August 14, 2006, http://hamptonroads.com/node/66531 (last checked September 8, 2013)
10. Mark Donnelly, Daniel Diehl, Pirates of Virginia: Plunder and High Adventure on the Old Dominion Coastline, Stackpole Books, 2012, pp.69-81, The Virginian-Pilot, August 22, 2006, The Virginian-Pilot, August 25, 2006, http://hamptonroads.com/node/66781 (last checked September 8, 2013)
11. "Pirate series opener: Virginia hunts for Blackbeard," Daily Press (Newport News), May 27, 2012, http://www.dailypress.com/features/history/dp-nws-pirates-1-052712-20120526,0,1029984.story (last checked August 18, 2013)
12. Charles Johnson (Daniel Defoe), A general history of the pyrates, 1724, posted in Internet Archive, p.87, Smithsonian, November 13, 2018, https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/three-centuries-after-his-beheading-kinder-gentler-blackbeard-emerges-180970782 (last checked November 17, 2018)
13. "November 22, 1718 - The Death of Blackbeard," This Month in North Carolina History Archives, November 2003, http://www2.lib.unc.edu/ncc/ref/nchistory/nov2003/nov2003.html (last checked August 18, 2013); Charles Ellms, The Pirates Own Book, 1837 (Project Gutenberg eBook digitized 2004), pp.213-215, http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/12216; Mark Donnelly, Daniel Diehl, Pirates of Virginia: Plunder and High Adventure on the Old Dominion Coastline, Stackpole Books, 2012, p.106; "Blackbeard was killed by an unlawful act of a Virginia lieutenant governor before he could get a pardon," The Virginian-Pilot, August 15, 2018, https://pilotonline.com/news/local/history/article_c04b45cc-a08e-11e8-a93f-a33f08d1a13a.html (last checked August 15, 2018)
14. "Pirate weapons excavated from Blackbeard's ship show life was violent on the high seas," The Virginian-Pilot, March 19, 2019, https://pilotonline.com/news/local/history/article_b4966e24-4a51-11e9-a39d-0376af344bbf.html (last checked March 20, 2019)
15. "Hampton Roads' most important pirate," Newport News Daily Press, May 30, 2013, Daily Press (Newport News), June 3, 2012, http://www.dailypress.com/features/history/dp-nws-pirates-8-20120603,0,4033404.story (last checked September 8, 2013)
16. Mark Donnelly, Daniel Diehl, Pirates of Virginia: Plunder and High Adventure on the Old Dominion Coastline, Stackpole Books, 2012, p.110; "About the Festival," City of Hampton, 2013, http://hampton.gov/index.aspx?NID=2059 (last checked August 18, 2013)
17. Mark Donnelly, Daniel Diehl, Pirates of Virginia: Plunder and High Adventure on the Old Dominion Coastline, Stackpole Books, 2012, p.138
18. Joel H. Samuels, "The Full Story of United States v. Smith, America's Most Important Piracy Case," Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs, Volume 1, Issue 2 (November 2012), p.334, p.340, p.347, https://elibrary.law.psu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=jlia (last checked June 3, 2018)
19. Joel H. Samuels, "The Full Story of United States v. Smith, America's Most Important Piracy Case," Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs, Volume 1, Issue 2 (November 2012), p.352-355, p.361, https://elibrary.law.psu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=jlia (last checked June 3, 2018)
20. "A Brief Sketch of the Occurrances on Board the Brig Crawford," Samuel Shepherd and Company, 1827, in "A Treasure Trove of Trials," Law Library of Congress, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/lawlib/law0001/2010/201000133614278/201000133614278.pdf (last checked June 3, 2018)
21. Joel H. Samuels, "The Full Story of United States v. Smith, America's Most Important Piracy Case," Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs, Volume 1, Issue 2 (November 2012), p.325, https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/INTRO/105?OpenDocument (last checked June 3, 2018)
22. "Confederate Pirates: Capture of Steamer St. Nicholas," The Mariner's Museum and Park, August 13, 2020, https://boundarystones.weta.org/2013/12/17/cross-dressing-civil-war-piracy-potomac (last checked January 1, 2021)
23. "Va. Piracy Conviction Spotlights Laws Of The Sea," National Public Radio, November 25, 2010, Washington Post, June 2, 2013, The Virginian-Pilot, August 3, 2013, The Washington Post, October 2, 2012, https://www.justice.gov/usao-edva/pr/three-somali-pirates-sentenced-life-prison-murder-four-americans-aboard-sv-quest (last checked June 3, 2018)
23. "Somali pirate sentenced to 33 years in US prison," BBC News, February 16, 2011, San Diego Tribune, November 29, 2012, http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/sdut-judge-somali-piracy-murder-trial-to-stay-in-va-2012nov29-story.html (last checked June 3, 2018)
in 1718, Governor Spotswood offered a reward for anyone to capture or kill pirates
Source: A general history of the pyrates (1724)