statue honoring Brent family on Route 1 in Stafford County
inscription on statue honoring Brent family on Route 1 in Stafford County
When Virginia was started as a colony, religious differences were political differences and dissent was potentially treason. Political authority and religious authority had been centralized in England since Henry VIII had rejected the authority of the Pope in the 1530's and established himself as the head of an Anglican Church. The English monarch was the head of the church as well as head of the state, and all government officials had to take the Oath of Supremacy.
When Queen Mary assumed the throne, her Catholic faith created political conflict. She was the daughter of Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon - a Catholic from Spain. Queen Mary sought to re-establish the Catholic faith as the state religion, following the tradition in Europe that the religion of the monarch became the established religion of the country, but died before completing the process.
Queen Mary was replaced by Queen Elizabeth I. The "virgin queen" restored Protestantism as the official religion, but the threat of another Catholic ruler throughout the 1600's exacerbated the political differences between the king and Parliament. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 finally established the primacy of Parliament, and the 1701 Act of Settlement blocked any Catholic from becoming a monarch in England.
James I died soon after revoking the charter of the Virginia Company in 1624, so his son ended up becoming the first English king with control over the Virginia colony. Charles I made two key decisions affecting religion in Virginia. In 1632, he reduced the size of Virginia by granting land north of the Potomac River to create the Catholic colony of Maryland. In 1643, Charles I appointed Sir William Berkeley as governor, and he proceeded to force out of Virginia the Puritans, Quakers, and others who did not conform to the Anglican style of worship.
The marriage of Charles I had been a matter of foreign policy rather than love. The priority of James I was for his heir to marry a Catholic, to increase the potential of gaining control over lands in Europe. An area in the Palatinate claimed by the son-in-law of James I, Frederick the Elector, had been occupied by the Spanish Army during the Thirty Years War. James I's daughter Elizabeth had married Frederick the Elector, and a century later her grandson would become King George I.
Charles I traveled secretly to Spain, but efforts to negotiate a marriage to the daughter of King Phillip III collapsed and he returned to England in humiliation. He then pressured his father, James I, to create an alliance with Catholic France and to support military conflict in Europe in order to expel the Spanish from territory along the Rhine River. The French alliance could be secured by a marriage between Charles I and Henrietta Maria, daughter of King Henry IV of France and sister of King Louis XIII of France.
The relationship started off with some difficulty. Charles I did not actually travel to France for the wedding. He sent a representative, which was an acceptable practice rather than a snub. Charles' proxy did not enter Notre Dame Cathedral to witness the ceremony. He did not attend the Catholic rite in person because England was officially a Protestant nation. Though the marriage was arranged for political reasons, to encourage an alliance between those rival governments, the two later fell into love.
The reverse occurred when Charles was crowned as king. Maria was unable to attend the coronation in person, since it was a Protestant ceremony and she was a Catholic.1
English rulers always insisted on one and only one official church in Virginia; Catholics never were welcomed in the colony. Even for a decade after the start of the American Revolution, there was no guarantee of religious freedom in Virginia.
Religious conflict was still a factor in Virginia politics, but colonial leaders minimized the Anglican-Catholic conflict by excluding non-Anglicans. On September 10, 1607, the first president of the Council in Virginia was forced to step down and imprisoned. Others on the Council accused Edward Maria Wingfield of being an atheist or Catholic sympathizer sympathetic to Spain, though his arrogant style of leadership might have spurred a desire to force him out of his leadership role. The religious charge was a serious affair. When Christopher Newport returned to the colony in January, 1608, he released Wingfield from prison but kept him off the Council, then took him back to England for trial in April 1608.
More seriously, Captain George Kendall was forced off the Council in 1608 and executed after being accused of being a Catholic. A tiny crucifix discovered by archeologists at Jamestown in 1607 documents the presence of Catholics in the colony, but they had o keep their religious beliefs a secret in order to avoid punishment.2
Starting in 1607, the only ministers sent by the Virginia Company were Anglican. Under Queen Elizabeth I and then King James I, that denomination was "established" as the official church of England. When it became a royal colony after the Virginia Company's charter was revoked in 1624, the connection between church and state was even more official. Virginia was always an Anglican colony.
After 1634, however, there were always Catholics on the northern Virginia border.
As part of the English-French marriage treaty for the son of James I, Charles I secretly promised to relax restrictions on Catholics in England. His willingness to support Catholics, perhaps influenced by his wife, was revealed in part when he granted a charter for the colony of Maryland. The charter was originally intended to be a grant to George Calvert, who had served as Secretary of State and Privy Councillor to James I. George Calvert converted to Catholicism and resigned his official positions in 1625, but the king created the title of Baron Baltimore for him.
Soon after being appointed to high office by James I, Calvert was granted land in Newfoundland in 1620. He sent colonists to "Ferryland" in 1621, and obtained more land in 1623 for the Province of Avalon. It acquired a reputation as a haven for Catholics fleeing England. There were 100 colonists there, making a living from fishing, when Calvert personally moved to it in 1627.
By 1629 he had determined that the winters were unbearable, and requested Charles I to provide a new land grant:3
George Calvert asked Charles I for a new grant in Virginia, but died just before Charles I issued his 1632 charter for the requested proprietary colony. The king gave the charter to George Calvert's son, Cecil Calvert, Second Lord Baltimore. Charles I requested that the new colony be named after Queen Maria, and "Maryland" was from the beginning a place where Catholics were welcome.
The Ark and Dove landed at St. Mary's Island in 1634. Cecil Calvert's immigrants held what the state of Maryland calls "the first Catholic mass in the Colonies." That claim carefully excludes Catholic masses held in Florida by Spanish settlers even prior to the settlement of St. Augustine in 1565, and Catholic masses held by Spanish Jesuits who settled in Virginia at Ajacan in 1570. In 2018 archeologists discovered the site of the fort built by those colonists where the Jesuit priest accompanying the first settlers, Father Andrew White, held Catholic masses starting in 1634.4
The settlers in Virginia did not appreciate the creation of Maryland. It gave to the Calverts valuable lands that the Virginians considered to be within their colonial boundaries, based on the Third Charter issued by James I in 1612.
The Virginian most affected by the creation of Maryland was William Claiborne. He had arrived in Virginia in 1621 as the colonial surveyor and established a fur trading post on Kent Island in 1631. Claiborne was evicted by the Calverts. He appealed to Charles I that his pre-existing claim to the island should be exempted from the grant of "a Country hitherto uncultivated" to the Calverts, but Charles I backed Cecil Calvert instead of William Claiborne.
Claiborne had partial revenge against the Calverts. He spurred the Susquehannock to take their fur trading business to the Swedes in Delaware, rather than do business with the Maryland colony. Claiborne's dispute with the Calverts did not end there, however. He participated in the 1644 revolt against Leonard Calvert, seizing St. Mary's City for several years. Later, from 1652-57, he served on the Parliamentary commission that governed Maryland under Cromwell. Despite those moments of revenge, Claiborne was never able to regain control of Kent Island.
The English Civil War between Charles I and the Puritans, led by Oliver Cromwell, was a war for power and control. International alliances were based on personal connections, such as who was married to whom, and national religions could change with new rulers. Charles I's perceived support for Catholicism was a threat to the Puritans, and led to the king's execution in 1649.
Also in 1649, Maryland passed the Act of Toleration, which said:5
This legislation was not based on an ecumenical movement or modern perception that each religion has value. Instead, it was a political move to attract new settlers and to minimize the threat of charter revocation by Cromwell's new government. In the 1640's, the population of Virginia and Maryland increased through immigration rather than natural births of existing colonists. Recruiting settlers to serve as indentured servants was not easy. The Calverts recognized that they could attract more European immigrants, and even dissatisfied settlers from Virginia, by minimizing the threat of discrimination based on religion.
Virginia officials harassed religious dissenters, which in the mid-1600's were primarily Puritans. Though the Puritans in England were clearly anti-Catholic, the Calverts encouraged the religious sect to settle in Anne Arundel County. The Catholic officials of Maryland wanted to increase the population of their colony and stimulate more economic growth with greater tobacco exports.
The Calverts planned to steer the Virginia Puritans to settle on the edge of their existing population centers. That would make the Puritans into a buffer between the existing settlements and the Susquehannocks and Iroquois raiders from the north. Virginia did the same thing a century later, welcoming the Scotch-Irish immigrants and the "Pennsylvania Dutch" to the Shenandoah Valley.
roadside historical marker for statue honoring Brent family on Route 1 in Stafford County